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What is an endocytic pathway?

What is an endocytic pathway?

The endocytic pathway of mammalian cells consists of distinct membrane compartments, which internalize molecules from the plasma membrane and recycle them back to the surface (as in early endosomes and recycling endosomes), or sort them to degradation (as in late endosomes and lysosomes).

Can endocytosis be inhibited?

Nonviral gene complexes can enter mammalian cells through different endocytic pathways. We found that chlorpromazine and to a lesser extent MβCD significantly decreased cell viability of some cell lines even after short incubation periods and at concentrations that are routinely used to inhibit endocytosis.

What is Endolysosomal pathway?

The endocytic pathway is a system specialized for the uptake of compounds from the cell microenvironment for their degradation. The primary function of the endocytic pathway is bulk degradation and recycling of the internalized material and redundant cellular components.

What are endocytic vesicles?

Definition: A membrane-bounded intracellular vesicle formed by invagination of the plasma membrane around an extracellular substance. Endocytic vesicles fuse with early endosomes to deliver the cargo for further sorting.

What would happen if endocytosis stopped?

If a compound’s uptake is dependent on receptor-mediated endocytosis and the process is ineffective, the material will not be removed from the tissue fluids or blood. Instead, it will stay in those fluids and increase in concentration. The failure of receptor-mediated endocytosis causes some human diseases.

What is the purpose of a clathrin?

Clathrin performs critical roles in shaping rounded vesicles in the cytoplasm for intracellular trafficking. Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) selectively sort cargo at the cell membrane, trans-Golgi network, and endosomal compartments for multiple membrane traffic pathways.

How can clathrin mediated endocytosis be prevented?

Chlorpromazine inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis by preventing the assembly and disassembly of clathrin lattices on cell surfaces and on endosomes15.

What is the efficacy of endocytosis inhibitors by cell type?

Efficacy of endocytosis inhibitors is cell type dependent. The broad distributions indicate that, within the same cell population, some cells will be strongly inhibited, whereas others will not show any inhibition at all. Because microscopy images only show a very limited number of cells (typically tens of cells),…

What is the role of EHD2 in CLIC/GEEC endocytosis?

EHD2 stabilizes the neck of caveolae to regulate endocytosis. CLIC/GEEC endocytosis appears to be a constitutive process (that is, a continuous endocytic uptake mechanism independent of receptor–ligand interactions) and is clathrin and dynamin independent.

What happens to internalized molecules in the endocytic pathway?

In the endocytic pathway, internalized molecules are delivered to early endosomes, where efficient sorting occurs. Although some molecules, in particular recycling receptors, are rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane for reutilization; others, including downregulated receptors, are transported to late endosomes and lysosomes for degradation.

How do transferrin and lactosylceramide interact with endocytic pathways?

Through analyzing the uptake and subcellular distribution of two fluorescent endocytic probes transferrin and lactosylceramide (LacCer) that are reported to enter cells via clathrin-dependent (CDE) and clathrin-independent (CIE) mechanisms, respectively, we showed poor specificity of these agents for inhibiting distinct endocytic pathways.